Registration Dossier

Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Sediment toxicity

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

No data on the toxicity of the substances belonging to the stilbene fluorescent whitening agents category on sediment organisms is available.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Under environmental conditions the substance dissociates completely in water, and Kow as well as Koc do not exceed 0.1 or 1 L/kg. Substances with a Koc < 500 -1000 L/kg are not likely sorbed to sediments. Distribution modelling (Mackay) yields 100% of the substance in the aqueous phase and not exposed to sediment. Bivalent metal cations like Ca2+ are present in the aqueous environment in high concentrations compared to the substance and form clusters with the anionic substance. These clusters exhibit different partitioning behaviour. Specific interactions and ion-exchange interactions between the substance and suspended solids may contribute strongly to the observed partitioning (Poiger 1994). Precipitation as the calcium or magnesium salts is a pathway that can be significant. (Baughman 1994). There is sufficient weight of evidence leading to the assumption that the substance itself is not exposed to sediment organisms.


Because of the low Koc, the partition coefficient suspended matter / water is not likely to exceed 1. Applying the equilibrium partitioning theory to assess the effects for sediment organisms, PNECsed does not exceed PNECwater. Thus, there is sufficient weight of evidence leading to the assumption that the substance is not harmful to sediment organisms.


Testing does not appear scientifically necessary.


Poiger, T., Behavior and Fate of Detergent-derived Fluorescent Whitening Agents in Sewage Treatment, Dissertation ETH Zürich No. 10832, EWAG 1994, p. 37 – 44.


Baughman, G.L., Fate of dyes in aquatic systems. Part 3. The role of suspended sediments in adsorption and reaction of acid and direct dyes. Dyes Pigm., 1995. 27(3), p. 197-210.