Registration Dossier

Data platform availability banner - registered substances factsheets

Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Given the use and physico-chemical properties of alkyl ketene dimers, photodegradation is not seen as a relevant sink. Alkyl ketene dimers are expected to hydrolyse readily under neutral and alkaline conditions in the environment and are assumed to be stable to hydrolysis at acidic pH values.

In the current ready biodegradtion study, Liquid AKD is not readily biodegradable, though it does not definitively screen as persistent (45% biodegradation at 28 days). Based on the evaluation of the current available study with the substance and the comparison of the substance with the read-across substance, it's expected that the substance will be assessed to be readily biodegradable in a new additional ready biodegradation study.

CA log Koc value of 9.1 was calculated for liquid AKD (KOCWIN v2.00). This Koc values indicate that liquid AKD will strongly adsorb to soil and sediment. 

At log Kow values between 4 and 5, log BCF increases linearly with log Kow. This linear relationship is the basis for the B screening criterion of log Kow > 4.5. At very high log Kow (>6), a decreasing relationship between the two parameters is observed. The very high log Kow value (> 11) therefore suggests that AKDs should be considered as not bioaccumulative. Additionally direct and indirect exposure of the aquatic compartment is limited, the bioavailability of the substance is very low, and no specific uptake mechanism apart from lipophilic partitioning is known or suspected. In conclusion, AKDs do not fulfil the bioaccumulation criteria and should not be considered as bioaccumulative (B) or very bioaccumulative (vB).


Additionally, Liquid AKD is utilized exclusively in facilities with on-site wastewater treatment plants. As >98% of the chemical is expected to be bound to articles after processing, and the majority of the remainder captured in either landfilled or recycled WWTP sludge, very little liquid AKD will potentially reach the environment.