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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2019-04-14 to 2019-05-14
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Version / remarks:
adopted on March 23, 2006; Annex 5 corrected: July 28, 2011
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD Series on Testing and Assessment Number 23; Guidance Document on Aquatic Toxicity Testing of Difficult Substances and Mixtures
Version / remarks:
February 2019
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.3 (Algal Inhibition test)
Version / remarks:
2016
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
For the analytical measurement, samples were directly taken after each fresh medium preparation and for the determination of the test material concentration during the exposure period; samples were also taken at the end of the exposure period.
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
reconstituted water
Details on test solutions:
A preparation with a test item concentration of 100 mg/L was freshly prepared. For that purpose, the test item was weighed in a calibrated flask and vehicle was added. The preparation was stirred with a magnetic stirrer for 24 hours. Then the formulation was passed through a filter membrane (pore size: 0.2 µm). The filtrate was used for the study. The pH was not adjusted.
Test organisms (species):
Raphidocelis subcapitata (previous names: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: green algae
- Strain: SAG 61.81
- Source: Pflanzenphysiologisches Institut der Universität Göttingen, Germany

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Hardness:
24 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
21.8 – 23.3 °C
pH:
7.97 – 8.65
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal measured: 100 mg/L
Measured: below LOQ
Details on test conditions:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: green algae
- Strain: SAG 61.81
- Source: Pflanzenphysiologisches Institut der Universität Göttingen, Germany

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: no
24 mg CaCO3/L
7.97 – 8.65
21.8 – 23.3 °C

TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Erlenmeyer flask
- Type: open
- Material, size, fill volume: glass, 300 mL, 100 mL
- Aeration: no
- Initial cells density: 10,000 cells per mL
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 6
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 6

GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Preparation of dilution water: according to OECD 201
OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: yes
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: continuous illumination
- Light: 7097 Lux ± 2.6% and 7378 Lux ± 3.0%
EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: The cell densities were determined with an electronic particle counter (Coulter-Counter Z2, Beckman Coulter GmbH, Krefeld, Germany).

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: 100 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Details on results:
- Exponential growth in the control (for algal test): yes
- Observation of abnormalities: no
- Unusual cell shape: no
- Colour differences: no
- Flocculation: no
- Adherence to test vessels: no
- Aggregation of algal cells: no
- Any stimulation of growth found in any treatment: no
- Any observations that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: no

VALIDITY CRITERIA
In the control group, the biomass increased by a factor of 157.8 over 72 hours. Therefore, the validity criterion of increase of biomass by at least a factor of 16 within three days was fulfilled. The mean coefficient of variation of the daily growth rates in the control group (section-by-section growth rates) during 72 hours was 17.17%. According to the OECD test guideline, the mean coefficient of variation must not be higher than 35%. Thus, the validity criterion was fulfilled. The coefficient of variation of the average specific growth rates in the replicates of the control group after 72 hours was 1.44%. According to the OECD test guideline, the coefficient of variation must not be higher than 7%. Thus, the validity criterion was fulfilled.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Under the conditions according to OECD 201, an aqueous solution with a nominal concentration of 100 mg/L of the test item revealed no toxicity to algae. The 72h EC50 for growth rate and yield were >100 mg/L (nominal concentration) and, thus, exceeded the maximum water solubility of the test material.
Executive summary:

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the test item on the growth rate and yield of the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. For this purpose, exponentially growing cultures of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to one concentration of the test item (limit test) for a period of 72 hours. Growth of the algae was determined 24, 48 and 72 hours after start of exposure and compared with the growth of the control group. From the results, EC values for growth rate and yield were determined. Samples of the test item and control media were directly after preparation and the daily, and then the test concentration was analysed via HR-ICP-Mass spectroscopy. The purpose of the analytical part of this study was to verify the concentrations of the test item in the test medium. The chemical analysis of the different components of the test item was performed in the test media samples and in the control samples. Two components, i.e. Niobium (Nb) and Titanium (Ti) were analyzed via HR-ICP-Mass Spectrometry. No component of the test item was detected in the control medium. Therefore, it was confirmed that the algae in the control group were not exposed to the test item. All validity criteria were met. No significant effect on growth rate and yield of the algae was observed at a nominal concentration of 100 mg/L, i.e. up to the maximum water solubility. Under the conditions of the present study, an aqueous solution with a nominal concentration of 100 mg/L of the test item revealed no toxicity to algae. The 72h EC50 for growth rate and yield were >100 mg/L (nominal concentration) and, thus, exceeded the maximum water solubility of the test material.

Description of key information

Under the conditions according to OECD 201, an aqueous solution with a nominal concentration of 100 mg/L of the test item revealed no toxicity to algae. The 72h EC50 for growth rate and yield were >100 mg/L (nominal concentration) and, thus, exceeded the maximum water solubility of the test material.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
100 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for freshwater algae:
100 mg/L

Additional information

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the test item on the growth rate and yield of the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. For this purpose, exponentially growing cultures of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to one concentration of the test item (limit test) for a period of 72 hours. Growth of the algae was determined 24, 48 and 72 hours after start of exposure and compared with the growth of the control group. From the results, EC values for growth rate and yield were determined. Samples of the test item and control media were directly after preparation and the daily, and then the test concentration was analysed via HR-ICP-Mass spectroscopy. The purpose of the analytical part of this study was to verify the concentrations of the test item in the test medium. The chemical analysis of the different components of the test item was performed in the test media samples and in the control samples. Two components, i.e. Niobium (Nb) and Titanium (Ti) were analyzed via HR-ICP-Mass Spectrometry. No component of the test item was detected in the control medium. Therefore, it was confirmed that the algae in the control group were not exposed to the test item. All validity criteria were met. No significant effect on growth rate and yield of the algae was observed at a nominal concentration of 100 mg/L, i.e. up to the maximum water solubility. Under the conditions of the present study, an aqueous solution with a nominal concentration of 100 mg/L of the test item revealed no toxicity to algae. The 72h EC50 for growth rate and yield were >100 mg/L (nominal concentration) and, thus, exceeded the maximum water solubility of the test material.