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First-aid measures


Never attempt to induce vomiting. Do not attempt to give any solid or liquid by mouth if the exposed subject is unconscious or semi-conscious. Wash out the mouth with water. If the exposed subject is fully conscious, give plenty of water to drink. Obtain medical attention.


Using appropriate personal protective equipment, move exposed subject to fresh air. If breathing is difficult or ceases, ensure and maintain ventilation. Give oxygen as appropriate. The exposed subject should be kept warm and at rest. Obtain medical attention in cases of known or possible overexposure or with symptoms including chest pain, difficulty in breathing, loss of consciousness or other adverse effects, which may be delayed.

Skin contact:

Using appropriate personal protective equipment, remove contaminated clothing and flush exposed area with large amounts of water. Obtain medical attention if skin reaction occurs, which may be immediate or delayed.

Eye contact:

Wash immediately with clean and gently flowing water. Continue for at least 15 minutes. Obtain medical attention.

Notes to Health Professionals

Medical treatment:

In allergic individuals, exposure to this material may require treatment for initial or delayed allergic symptoms and signs. This may include immediate and/or delayed treatment of anaphylactic reactions. Treat according to locally accepted protocols. For additional guidance, refer to the local poison control information centre.

Medical conditions caused or aggravated by exposure:

Ocular symptoms may be indicative of allergic reaction. Pulmonary symptoms may indicate allergic reaction or asthma.

Health surveillance procedures:

The need for pre-placement and periodic health surveillance must be determined by risk assessment. Following assessment, if the risk of exposure is considered significant, then exposed individuals should receive health surveillance focused on detecting respiratory symptoms and including respiratory function testing. In the event of overexposure, individuals should receive post exposure health surveillance focused on detecting respiratory conditions and other allergy symptoms.


No specific antidotes are recommended

Fire-fighting measures

Fire and explosion hazards:

The material is highly flammable.

Dust clouds are potentially extremely sensitive to ignition from incendive electrostatic discharges. Dust clouds are of very low sensitivity to ignition from hot surfaces.

No ignition or exotherm of a powder layer observed up to 400C.

Ignition of a dust cloud produces a strong dust explosion.

High pressure between 8 and 10 bar is produced during a dust explosion.

Suitable extinguishing media:

Water, dry powder or foam extinguishers are recommended. Carbon dioxide extinguishers may be ineffective.

Special protective equipment and precautions for firefighters:

Since toxic, corrosive or flammable vapoues might evolve from fires involving this material, self-contained breathing apparatus and full protective equipment are recommended for firefighters. Move containers from the fire area if possible without increased personal risk. If possible, contain and collect firefighting water for later disposal.

Specific hazards arising from material:

Toxic, corrosive or flammable thermal decomposition products, which might include sulphur compounds, are expected when the material is exposed to fire.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions:

Fence or cordon the affected area and do not allow individuals to touch or walk through the spilled material, unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Avoid dust generation.

Environmental precautions:

Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, surface drainage systems and poorly ventilated areas. If spill is outdoors, cover with plastic sheet to minimise spreading or contact with rain.

Clean-up methods:

Collect and place it in a suitable, properly labelled container for recovery or disposal. After all solid or absorbent material has been collected, the area should be vacuumed with HEPA filter-equipped apparatus.

Decontamination procedures:

No specific decontamination or detoxification procedures have been identified for this material. Consider use of water, detergent solutions or other soluble solvents, for clean-up and decontamination operations.

Handling and storage

General requirements:

Avoid dispersion as a dust cloud.

Depending upon the scale of operation, use of appropriate exhaust ventilation is recommended to provide routine control of fire and explosion hazards during handling of this material.

Ignition controls:

Any mechanical operations used for particle size reduction should be performed in a manner that do not produce localised heating.

Bond and earth (ground) all plant and equipment to ensure that no isolated conductors are present. Isolated conductors can accumulate sufficient electrostatic charge to produce discharges of many hundreds of milli-Joules. Consider earthing (grounding) personnel dealing with dusty operations. An isolated (insulated) human body can readily produce electrostatic discharges in excess of 50 mJ, but have been recorded up to 100 mJ.

Minimise the use of plastics when handling this material. Handle and store this material only in conductive or anti-static plastic liners (bags) since normal plastics are known to be capable of producing electrostatic discharges of up to 4 mJ, ensuring that any containers into which they are

placed are themselves of a conductive material and earthed (grounded).

Due to the very low minimum ignition energy for this powder, it is advisable to treat this material as if it is a flammable solvent vapour.

The maximum surface temperature of enclosures potentially exposed to this material should be the lower of the values obtained by taking 2/3 of the minimum ignition temperature for a dust

cloud or 75 K less than the minimum ignition temperature of the dust layer, with a maximum temperature of 325 °C.

Protective systems:

Assess operations based upon available dust explosion information to determine the suitability of preventive or protective systems as precautionary measures against possible dust explosions. If

prevention is not possible, consider protection by use of containment, venting or suppression of dust handling equipment. Where explosion venting is considered the most appropriate method of protection, vent areas should preferably be calculated based on the Kst rather than the St value. If nitrogen purging is considered as the protective system, it must operate with an oxygen level

below the limiting oxygen concentration. The system should include an oxygen monitoring and shut-down facility in the event of excessive oxygen being detected.

At both ambient and low humidity, this material is of low conductivity. Generation of electrostatic charge is considered likely to occur even when handled in an earthed (grounded) environment. At ambient humidity, this material has a long charge relaxation time. Accumulation of electrostatic charge is considered likely to occur even when handled in an earthed (grounded) environment. Under these conditions, it is considered that this material might present a very high risk of producing an electrostatic discharge. At low humidity, this material has an extremely long charge relaxation time. Accumulation of electrostatic charge will occur even when handled in an earthed (grounded) environment. Under these conditions, it is considered that this material might present a very high risk of producing an electrostatic discharge.

Conditions for safe storage:

Keep in tightly closed containers or packages away from moisture and away from sources of ignition. Avoid prolonged storage at elevated temperatures (greater than room temperature, approximately 20C)

Transport information

Land transport (UN RTDG/ADR/RID)

UN number:
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
Flammable solid, organic, nos
Class 4.1 Flammable Solid
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Marine transport (UN RTDG/IMDG)

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Exposure controls / personal protection

Engineering controls

Exposure controls:

An exposure control approach (ECA) is established for operations involving this material based upon the OEL / Occupational Hazard Category and the outcome of a site- or operation-specific risk assessment.


Open handling should be limited to small quantities. Consider use of enclosures.


Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) should be applied at the source to capture contaminants from open or semi-enclosed operations.

Personal Protective Equipment

Eye protection:

Wear approved safety glasses with side shields or cover goggles if eye contact is possible.


The selection of gloves for a specific activity must be released on the material's properties and on possible permeation and degradation that may occur under the circumstances of use. Glove selection must take into account any solvents and other hazards present. Potential allergic reactions can occure with certain glove materials (e.g. Latex) and therefore these should be avoided. Care must be exercised if insufficient data are available and further guidance should be sought from your local EHS department.


If respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is used, the type of RPE will depend upon air concentrations present, required protection factor as well as hazards, physical properties and warning properties of substances present. Follow local regulations for respirator use in the workplace.

Other equipment or procedures:

An eye wash station should be available. Wera appropriate clothing to avoid skin contact.

Stability and reactivity

Avoid direct sunlight, conditions that might generate heat and dispersion as a dust cloud.

Disposal considerations

Disposal recommendations:

Collect for recycling or recovery if possible. The recommended method of disposal is incineration. Wherever possible, disposal should be in an on-site licensed chemical incinerator, if allowed by the incinerator licence or permit. If no on-site incinerator is available, dispose of material in a licensed commercial chemical incinerator.

Regulatory requirements:

Observe all local and national regulations when disposing of this material.