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Eye irritation

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eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
2-[(octadecylcarbamoyl)oxy]ethyl acrylate
EC Number:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
2-[(octadecylcarbamoyl)oxy]ethyl acrylate
Test material form:
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Identification: 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[[(octadecylamino)carbonyl]oxy]ethyl ester
Physical state/Appearance: white solid
Purity: >98%
Storage Conditions: room temperature in the dark

Test animals / tissue source

Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
All eyes were macroscopically examined before and after dissection. Only corneas free of damage were used.

The cornea from each selected eye was removed leaving a 2 to 3 mm rim of sclera to facilitate handling. The iris and lens were peeled away from the cornea. The isolated corneas were immersed in a dish containing HBSS until they were mounted in Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) holders.

The anterior and posterior chambers of each BCOP holder were filled with complete Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM) without phenol red and plugged. The holders were incubated at 32 ± 1 ºC for 80 minutes. At the end of the incubation period each cornea was examined for defects

Three corneas with opacity values close to the median value of all corneas were allocated to the negative control. Three corneas were also allocated to the test item and three corneas to the positive control item.

Test system

unchanged (no vehicle)
yes, concurrent positive control
yes, concurrent negative control
Amount / concentration applied:
0.75 mL of the test item preparation or control items were applied to the appropriate corneas
Duration of treatment / exposure:
240 minutes.
Details on study design:
The EMEM was removed from the anterior chamber of the BCOP holder and 0.75 mL of the test item preparation or control items were applied to the appropriate corneas. The holders were gently tilted back and forth to ensure a uniform application of the item over the entire cornea. Each holder was incubated, anterior chamber uppermost, at 32 ± 1 ºC for 240 minutes.

At the end of the exposure period the test item and control items were removed from the anterior chamber and the cornea was rinsed three times with fresh complete EMEM containing phenol red before a final rinse with complete EMEM without phenol red. The anterior chamber was refilled with fresh complete EMEM without phenol red. A post-treatment opacity reading was taken and each cornea was visually observed.

Following the opacity measurement the permeability of the corneas to sodium fluorescein was evaluated. The medium from the anterior chamber was removed and replaced with 1 mL of sodium fluorescein solution (5 mg/mL). The dosing holes were plugged and the holders incubated, anterior chamber uppermost, at 32 ± 1 ºC for 90 minutes.

After incubation the medium in the posterior chamber of each holder was decanted and retained.
360 µL of medium representing each cornea was applied to a designated well on a 96 well plate and the optical density at 492 nm (OD492) was measured using the Anthos 2001 microplate reader.

The corneas were retained after testing for possible conduct of histopathology. Each cornea was placed into a pre labeled tissue cassette fitted with a histology sponge to protect the endothelial surface. The cassette was immersed in 10% neutral buffered formalin.

The corrected OD492 was calculated by subtracting the mean OD492 of the negative control corneas from the OD492 value of each treated cornea. The OD492 value of each treatment group was calculated by averaging the corrected OD492 values of the treated corneas for the treatment group.

The following formula was used to determine the In Vitro Irritancy Score:

In Vitro Irritancy Score = mean opacity value + (15 x mean permeability OD492 value)

Additionally, the opacity and permeability values were evaluated independently to determine whether the test item induced a response through only one of the two endpoints.

Results and discussion

In vitro

Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
Positive controls validity:
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Other effects / acceptance of results:
The corneas treated with the test item were clear post treatment. The corneas treated with the negative control item were clear post treatment. The corneas treated with the positive control item were cloudy post treatment.

The positive control In Vitro Irritancy Score was within the range of 66.9 to 101.4. The positive control acceptance criterion was therefore satisfied.

The negative control gave opacity of ≤4.1 and permeability ≤0.105. The negative control acceptance criteria were therefore satisfied.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
The test item received an In Vitro Irritancy Score of 0.2, and is classified as ‘No category. Not requiring classification to UN GHS or EU CLP’.