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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: proposed procedure for phytotoxicity testing on Avena sativa and Brassica rapa, 14 d, UBA Berlin, 3/1984
Principles of method if other than guideline:
14-d phytotoxicity test
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: field mustard
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 other: mg/kg soil
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling emergence and growth
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
according to Pisker et al. (1984), Seedlings exposed to different test concentrations, root length measurement
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Species:
other: Lupinus albus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: White lupine
- Plant family: Fabaceae
Species:
other: Cicer arietinum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Chick pea
- Plant family: Fabaceae
Test type:
other: Root length
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: test solution
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Species:
other: Lupinus albus
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
384 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: root growth
Species:
other: Cicer arietinum
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
361 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: root growth

TGK <= 288 mg/L (toxic threshold concentraion is graphically determined with a mean increase of root length of the controls minus the standard deviation)

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
11d-toxicity test with concentration series on seedling roots (length of stems, length of longest root, dry weight roots)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: barley
- Plant family: Poaceae
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: oat
- Plant family: Poaceae
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: test solution
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
11 d
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 25, 35, 70, 100 and 200 mg/L (referring to active matter)
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
11 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 200 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling growth
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
11 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 200 other: mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: seedling growth

The test substance displayed only weak effects on the development of barley and oat seedlings as compared to a control. Effect concentrations are not reported.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EEC ring test, C(L1)3: Higher Plant, EEC-Directive 79/831 (1986)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: oat
- Plant family: Poaceae
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Japanese radish
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
300 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EEC ring test, C(L1)3: Higher Plant, EEC-Directive 79/831 (1986)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Japanese reddish, leafy daikon
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: oat
- Plant family: Poaceae
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Tomato
- Plant family: Solanaceae
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
300 other: mg/kg soil
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 other: mg/kg soil
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: 10.5% reduced weight at 1000 mg/kg soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
1 000 other: mg/kg soil
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 other: mg/kg soil
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 other: mg/kg soil
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the Category Approach Justification document provided in IUCLID6 Section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
other: seed emergence and growth
Remarks on result:
other: Source, key, 68955-20-4, 1988

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

In accordance to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5 a read-across to another structurally related category members was conducted. Read-across data available for C16-18AS Na (CAS 68955-20-4), C12AS Na (CAS 151-21-3) and C12-18AS Na (CAS 68955-19-1) were used.

One reliable study with terrestrial plants is available for C16-18AS Na (CAS 68955-20-4) (Steber 1988). The key non-GLP study followed the procedure for phytotoxicity testing on Avena sativa and Brassica rapa, as described by UBA Berlin (publication series 3/1984) Plants were exposed to the test substance for 14 days in artificial soil. The 14-day EC0 value for Brassica rapa based on seedling emergence and growth was above 1000 mg a.i./kg soil d.w (nominal concentration).

Moreover two additional studies are available (secondary quotation, OECD SIDS 2007). The non-GLP short-term test with Japanese raddish (Raphanus sativus, dicots), oat (Avena sativa, monocots) and tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, dicots) was performed in an EEC ring test, C(L1)3: Higher Plant, EEC-Directive 79/831, 1986 (Henkel, 1995). Early seedling growth toxicity test was carried out for 14 days under laboratory conditions. The lowest NOEC value based on seedling growth was obtained for Raphanus sativus and reached 300 mg/kg soil (nominal concentration). The NOEC values for Avena sativa and Lycopersicon esculentum were above 1000 mg/kg soil (nominal concentrations). The other non-GLP test performed in an EEC ring test, C(L1)3: Higher Plant, EEC-Directive 79/831 (1986), was carried out for 21 days. Japanese radish (Brassica rapa) and oat (Avena sativa) were tested in laboratory conditions in the early seedling growth toxicity test. The NOEC value for Brassica rapa was 300 mg/kg soil d.w. (nominal concentration) and for Avena sativa the NOEC value was 1000 mg/kg soil d.w. (nominal concentration).

One study is available for C12AS Na (CAS 151-21-3; Schmidt 1988). White lupine (Lupinus albus) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) were tested in a short-term test. Seedlings were exposed to different test concentrations and root length measurement after 72h. The EC50 was 384 mg/L for white lupine and 361 mg/L for chickpea.

Finally, one study is available for C12-18AS Na (CAS 68955-19-1; Hartman 1966). This 11-day toxicity test was performed on seedling roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa). Length of stems, length of longest root, dry weight roots were measured. The substance was tested in a nutrient solution containing various concentrations of the test substance up to 200 mg/L. The 11d-EC50 for both species was >200 mg/L based on seedling growth.

 

The substance is not supposed to be directly applied to soil and further is readily biodegradable. Hence in case of indirect exposure to soil, the substance is expected to rapidly degrade. Therefore soil is not expected to be a compartment of concern.

The Equilibrium Partitioning Method was used to calculate the PNECs values for the terrestrial compartment. The substance exhibits an adsorption coefficient (log Koc) below 5 and is readily biodegradable. In case of exposure to soil, the substance is expected to rapidly degrade, thus the hazard to terrestrial organisms is negligible. Hence, the Equilibrium Partitioning Method is sufficient to calculate the PNECs values for the terrestrial compartment according to the “Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.7c: Endpoint specific guidance”, Section 7.11.6 Integrated Testing Strategy for Effects on Terrestrial Organisms (ECHA 2017).