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Toxicity to microorganisms

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to microorganisms
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer-reviewed journal
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
80 min toxicity test was conducted on bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus to study the effects of phloxine B .The toxicity test has been performed on the basis of inhibitory growth effects.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): phloxine B
- Molecular formula: C20-H2-Br4-Cl4-O5.2Na
- Molecular weight: 829.6388 g/mol
- Smiles notation (if other than submission substance): c1c2c(c(c(c1Br)[O-])Br)Oc3c(cc(c(c3Br)[O-])Br)C24c5c(c(c(c(c5Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)C(=O)O4.[Na+].[Na+]
- InChl (if other than submission substance):
1S/C20H4Br4Cl4O5.2Na/c21-5-1-3-17(9(23)15(5)29)32-18-4(2-6(22)16(30)10(18)24)20(3)8-7(19(31)33-20)11(25)13(27)14(28)12(8)26;;/h1-2,29-30H;;/q;2*+1/p-2
- Substance type:Organic
- Physical state:Solid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
No data available
Test organisms (species):
Staphylococcus aureus
Details on inoculum:
No data available
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
80 min
Post exposure observation period:
No data available
Hardness:
No data available
Test temperature:
No data available
pH:
No data available
Dissolved oxygen:
No data available
Salinity:
No data available
Conductivity:
No data available
Nominal and measured concentrations:
50 or 100 mg/L
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
80 min
Dose descriptor:
other: MIC
Effect conc.:
25 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth inhibition
Remarks on result:
other: Bacterial growth stopped completely and the cell count decreased by 104 and 105 at dose concentration of 50 and 100 mg/L respectively , These values point to a MIC of 25 mg/L.
Details on results:
No data available
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No data available
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No data available
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 25 mg/L for test chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen- 9-yl) benzoic acid (phloxine B) (CAS No.18472-87-2) exposed to Staphylococcus aureus for 80 min.
Executive summary:

80 min toxicity test was conducted on bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus to study the toxic effects of chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6- hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid (phloxine B). 90% inhibition was observed after exposure to phloxine B. When dye was added at concentrations of 50 or 100 mg/L, bacterial growth stopped completely and the cell count decreased by 104and 105, respectively, within 80 min. These values point to a MIC of 25 mg/L. Hence, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 25 mg/L for test chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoic acid (phloxine B) (CAS No. 18472-87-2) exposed to Staphylococcus aureus for 80 min.

Description of key information

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 25 mg/L for test chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen- 9-yl) benzoic acid (phloxine B) (CAS No.18472-87-2) exposed to Staphylococcus aureus for 80 min.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10 or NOEC for microorganisms:
25 mg/L

Additional information

Various experimental studies from a peer-reviewed journal for toxicity to microorganism with the target substance3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid(CAS No. 18472-87-2), were reviewed and are summarized as follows: 

 

80 min toxicity test was conducted by Avraham Rasooly et al. (Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy, Nov. 2002, P. 3650–3653) on bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus to study the toxic effects of chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6- hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid (phloxine B). 90% inhibition was observed after exposure to phloxine B. When dye was added at concentrations of 50 or 100 mg/L, bacterial growth stopped completely and the cell count decreased by 104 and 105, respectively, within 80 min. These values point to a MIC of 25 mg/L. Hence, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 25 mg/L for test chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoic acid (phloxine B) (CAS No. 18472-87-2) exposed to Staphylococcus aureus for 80 min.

 

Further, toxicity to micro-organisms test was conducted by Gyula Oros et. al., (Chemosphere, Vol. 52, Pg. no. 185–193, 2003) on 14 different gram – negative bacteria. Inhibitory activity of test chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen- 9-yl) benzoic acid (Phloxine B) (CAS No.18472-87-2) was determined by the traditional agar gel method. Based on growth inhibition of Agrobacterium radiobacter; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Bradyrhizobium japonicum; Erwinia herbicola; Erwinia uredovora; Pseudomonas fluorescence Midula; Rhizobium trifolii Dangeard [RTR]; Xanthomonas malvacearum (Erw. Smith) Dowson [XMA]; Xanthomonas phaseoli Burkholder [XPH] and X. stewartii (Erw. Smith) Dowson [XST] , the LOEC value was reported to be 0.6918 mg/l.

Since no effect on growth of Escherichia coli; Erwinia atroseptica Dye [EAT]; Pseudomonas phaseolicola ; Pseudomonas syringae were observed, the NOEC value was reported to be 0.6918 mg/l.

 

Moreover in a study by Gyula Oros et. al., (Chemosphere, Vol. 52, Pg. no. 185–193, 2003), toxicity to micro-organisms test was conducted on 8 different gram – positive bacteria. Inhibitory activity of test chemical 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen- 9-yl) benzoic acid (Phloxine B) (CAS No.18472-87-2) was determined by the traditional agar gel method. Based on growth inhibition of gram positive bacteria, the LOEC value was reported to be 0.6918 mg/l.