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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Reliable results are available for short-term and prolonged fish toxicity, short and long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates, toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria, and microorganisms.

Only in a few cases studies conducted according to OECD guideline are available. In general, analytical monitoring of test substance concentrations was not performed. Based on the results of acute toxicity testing with fish, the moderate volatility of acetone seems to be of little importance since the results are comparable.

Short-term toxicity to fish:

In two studies conducted comparable to OECD guideline 203, a 96h LC50=7163 mg/L and a 96 h EC50=7057 mg/L (geometric mean of three independent studies and measurements each) were determined for Pimephales promelas under flow-through conditions and a 96h LC50=5540 mg/L (nominal) was found for Oncorhynchus mykiss. Further studies support the very low acute toxicity of acetone towards fish.

A 14d-LC50=6368 mg/L (nominal; prolonged fish toxicity study) was determined for Poecilia reticulata in a semi-static test. A 96 h LC50=11000 mg/L was determined for the brackish fish Alburnus alburnus in closed system.

Long-term toxicity to fish:

No valid studies.

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

No tests according to current standard guidelines for short-term toxicity to invertebrates (e.g. OECD 202) are available. Several studies, however, were carried out comparable to guideline procedures. All available tests were performed under static test conditions. In a study carried out in analogy to the concept rules of the Dutch Standardization Institute a 48 h LC50=8800 mg/L (nominal) was determined for Daphnia pulex and a 48 h LC50 in the range between 12600 and 12700 mg/L (nominal) for Daphnia magna. Two studies dealing with the toxicity of acetone towards marine invertebrates are available. For the marine invertebrates the brine shrimp Artemia salina, a 24 hour LC50=2100 mg/L (nominal) was determined and for Nitocra spinipes a 96 hour LC50=16700 mg/L (nominal). Additional non-guideline toxicity tests performed with crustaceans, insects, and molluscs support the conclusion that acetone is of very low acute toxicity to invertebrates (LC50 values >=7000 mg/L).

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Reliable data from studies conducted according to or comparable to OECD Guideline 211 are available. In a study conducted comparable to OECD 211, the 28-day-chronic toxicity of acetone to Daphnia magna was studied under flow -through conditions. The 28-day NOEC based on reproduction was found to be 2212 mg/L (nominal). The 28-day NOEC (MATC) and 28-day LOEC based on mortality of parent individuals was in the range between 1106 and 2212 mg/L and 2212 mg/L (nominal), respectively. In a further study, the 21-day-chronic toxicity of acetone to Daphnia magna was investigated under semi-static conditions in a study conducted according to OECD Guideline 211. The 21-day NOEC based on reproduction was >= 79 mg/L.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

There are a lot of studies dealing with the toxicity of acetone to freshwater and saltwater algae. Only the study with Microcystis aeruginosa, however, fulfills the validity critereria of current guidelines (in deviation from guideline light/dark cycles were employed in studies with freshwater and saltwater species).

Freshwater species:

For the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa a TTC (toxic threshold concentration) of 530 mg/L (nominal) was determined by Bringmann & Kühn (1978). In this test after 8 days exposure the cyanobacteria may not longer be in the exponential growth phase which might have a negative influence on the test result. However, the 8-day Microcystis test has been accepted after in-depth review within the OECD HPV program as well as in EU-RAR (for Phenol) and therefore considered reliable with restrictions.The effect value, however, should be used with care. The 48/96 h NOEC values reported in other studies ranged from 3400 mg/L (48 h) nominal for Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7000 mg/L nominal for Selenastrum capricornutum (96 h). These data support the low toxicity of acetone to freshwater algae and cyanobacteria.

Saltwater species:

The NOEC values ranged from 430 mg/L nominal (96 h) for Prorocentrum minimum to 6000 mg/L nominal (120 h) for Skeletonema costatum. For Skeletonema costatum a 5 d EC50=11798 mg/L nominal was determined. However, these data are well within the range of typical species variability in sensitivity toward toxicants.

Toxicity to microorganisms:

Two guideline studies are available. In a study conducted according to a modification of OECD Guideline 209 suitable for testing of highly volatile substances, activated sludge of a predominantly domestic sewage was exposed to acetone under static conditions in closed system. The 30 min EC12 was determined to be 1000 mg/L nominal based on respiration. In a further study conducted according to ISO 8192, the 30 min EC50 based on respiration inhibition was determined to be 77.4 mL/L (=61.15 g/L nominal). In further experiments with mixed cultures (75 min BIC=35812 mg/L; 24 h LOEC=10000 mg/L), Pseudomonas putida (16 h NOEC=1700 mg/L), Nitrosomonas (24 h IC50=1200 mg/L), and Paramecium caudatum (4 h LC50=5227 mg/L nominal each) the low toxicity of acetone to microorganisms was confirmed. In a static cell multiplication inhibition test with Entosiphon sulcatum, a 72h-NOEC was determined to be 28 mg/L nominal. This value is regarded as outlier.