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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

RA_CAS 67-48-1_Daphnia magna_OECD 211_time-weighted mean of measured concentrations: LC50(21d) > 95.50 mg/L (parental mortality), EC50(21d): 58.9 mg/L (95 % CL: 37.7 - 83.7 mg/L), NOEC(21d): 30.2 mg/L, LOEC(21d): 95.5 mg/L

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
30.2 mg/L

Additional information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was not investigated with the target substance Choline hydrogen carbonate. A valid experimental result is available for the reliable read-across substance Choline chloride (CAS 67-48-1). Both substances belong to the group of quaternary amine salts (more specific: choline salts, i.e. (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium salts), which will dissociate immediately in aqueous environment. Choline and its metabolites are important for different functions in the body of animate beings and thus a naturally occurring compound. Thus, the substance characteristics of both substances are comparable. For the detailed justification of this procedure, please refer to the separate read-across statement by Chemservice S.A. (2013).

A long-term experiment was conducted with the aquatic invertebrate Daphnia magna in order to determine the impact of Choline chloride on the reproduction rate during an exposure duration of 21 days (MOE Japan, 1999). The study was conducted according to OECD Guideline 211 and under GLP compliance. The nominal test concentrations were reported as 0, 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 mg/L, whereby the measured concentrations (based on time-weighted mean of measured concentrations) were as followed: 0, 2.83, 9.00, 30.2 and 95.5 mg/L. 10 replicates per concentration and 1 individual per replicate were implemented. The stability of the test substance was confirmed by IR absorption spectrum. A photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h dark was produced. The green algae Chlorella vulgaris served as food during the exposure duration. Potassium dichromate was used as reference substance, resulting in an EC50(48h) of 0.079, based on mobility). The effect data for choline chloride, based on reproduction, were reported as followed: LC50(21d) > 95.50 mg/L (parental mortality), EC50(21d): 58.9 mg/L (95 % CL: 37.7 - 83.7 mg/L), NOEC(21d): 30.2 mg/L and LOEC(21d): 95.5 mg/L. The results are based on the time-weighted mean of measured concentrations.