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Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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monitoring data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: study from National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FIN-70701 Kuopio, Finland, well documentated, according to standards

Data source

Reference Type:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Population with high food consumtion
- sample of 2 ml bllod
- Analysis:
The analysis of whole blood samples (2.0 ml) was performed
according to the tissue method developed by Ikonomou et al.
(2002) with slight modifications. NaCl (1 g) used to aid in the
extraction was added in a solid form, and the derivatisation
reagent, sodium tetraethylborate, was applied as 2% solution.
Three cm of basic alumina (activated at 200 °C overnight,
90 min at 300 °C, and 200 °C until use) was loaded to a Pasteur
pipette, and the samples were eluted with 10 ml of 4% diethylether
in hexane. On average, 27 actual whole blood samples
were analysed in each batch.
Three-level calibration was performed by spiking 2.0 ml of
whole blood with known amounts of OTCs and by treating
exactly as the true samples.Whole bloodusedfor thecalibration
samples was beforehand confirmed to be free of OTCs.
GLP compliance:
Type of measurement:
other: concentration in human
other: human via environment

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Dioctyltin compounds
Dioctyltin compounds
Test material form:
other: in human blood

Results and discussion

Concentrationopen allclose all
Turku , blood samples form human
Substance or metabolite:
< 0.72 other: ng/ml
Remarks on result:
other: L0Q = 0.72 ng/ml blood
Helsinki , blood samples form human
Substance or metabolite:
< 0.72 other: ng/ml
Remarks on result:
other: L0Q = 0.72 ng/ml blood

Any other information on results incl. tables

Number of blood samples: n=300

L0Q (ng/mlblood ) = 0.72

Number of samples>LOQ = 0

133 fishermen, 94 fishermen's wives, and 73 other family members living in reasonable distance from Helsinki and Turku

Applicant's summary and conclusion

There were no Dioctyltin compounds detected in human with high fish consumption
Executive summary:

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of organotin compounds in the whole blood of Finnish male fishermen (n=133), their wives (n=94), and other family members (n=73), and to investigate their associations with background variables. The concentrations were generally low, less than the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the vast majority of compounds and samples. Of the organotin compounds (mono-, di-, and tributyltin, mono-, di-, and triphenyltin, and dioctyltin), only triphenyltin was detected in more than just a few samples (in 37 of 300 samples, LOQ=0.04 ng/ml). These were mainly the samples of fishermen (26/37) and their wives (10/37). For statistical analysis, concentrations of triphenyltin were divided into two categories, bLOQ and NLOQ. Of the different background variables, age and fish consumption contributed the most to the triphenyltin concentrations. When age and fish consumption (g/day) were divided into three categories, odds ratios comparing the highest with the lowest category were 3.88 for age (95% CI 1.36– 11.09) and 3.48 for fish consumption (1.36–8.94), respectively. Compared with females, males had an odds ratio of 1.51 of having the concentration of triphenyltin NLOQ (0.72–3.14). In no of the blood samples Dioctyltin was detected (L0Q 0.72 mg/ml) To the best of our knowledge, this study confirmed for the first time with human samples that fish consumption can be associated with triphenyltin concentration in whole blood.